Genes, Environments, and Time: The Biology of Adversity and Resilience 

This February 2021 article by Tom Boyce, Pat Levitt, Fernando Martinez, Bruce McEwen and Jack Shonkoff article in the journal Pediatrics is one of two companion pieces.  The article uses a gene-environment-time framework to look at the roles of genetic variation, environmental context, and developmental timing as they relate to the biology of adversity and resilience.  The authors identify 4 core concepts to help catalyze fresh thinking about primary care for infants and children.

Read the free article at the American Academy of Pediatrics.